The 1864 Sino-Spanish Treaty and the Chinese in the Philippines, 1871-1896
Jely A. Galang, Ph.D.

Galang, Jely A. 2023. “The 1864 Sino-Spanish Treaty and the Chinese in the Philippines, 1871-1896,” Chinese Studies Journal 17: 108-139.


This paper explores how different groups in the Philippines invoked and utilized the 1864 Sino-Spanish Treaty to protect, maintain, and promote their economic interests, and how some of its provisions affected the lives of the Chinese in late-nineteenth century Philippines. Three cases—based on underexplored archival materials from Philippine and Spanish archives—that occurred in the last three decades of the Spanish colonial period were examined to address these concerns. These cases include (1) the Spanish colonial government’s implementation of new immigration and residence policies directed to transient Chinese (1871); (2) a complaint filed by the German Ambassador to Spain regarding the importation of Chinese coolies (1889); and (3) a complaint filed by the Chinese legation in Spain regarding the increase in the disembarkation fee imposed upon Chinese immigrants (1894).

Keywords: Sino-Spanish Treaty, Chinese, Philippine history, diplomatic history